Chronology

 Prehistory and Early History to 1000 CE
 ♦ ca. 10,000 BCE-6,000 BCE Neolithic wall paintings appear in Padhalin Cave, Shan State.
 ♦ 563 BCE-483 BCE Gotama Buddha's lifetime, which according to Burmese legend witnessed construction of Shwe Dagon Pagoda, casting of Maha Muni Buddha image.
 ♦ ca. third century BCE According to legend, Indian Emperor Asoka (r. 268-233 BCE) sends Buddhist missionaries to Thaton.
 ♦ seventh century CE Chinese records describe Pyu state of Sri Ksetra (Thayekhittaya).
 ♦ 849 CE Founding of Pagan as a walled city by Burmans.
 Dynastic Burma (1000-1824)
 ♦ 1044 King Anawrahta establishes Pagan Dynasty (1044-ca. 1325).
 ♦ 1287 King Wareru establishes state at Martaban in Lower Burma.
 ♦ late 13th century Keng Tung founded by Shan (Tai) ruler.
 ♦ 1364 Establishment of Ava as capital in Upper Burma (Ava Period, 1364-1555).
 ♦ 1453-1472 Reign of Mon queen, Shinsawbu (Banya Thaw), at Hanthawaddy.
 ♦ 1486 Minkyinyo establishes Toungoo Dynasty (1486-1752).
 ♦ 1551-1581 Reign of Bayinnaung, preeminent Burman conquerorking.
 ♦ 1600-1613 Portuguese Felipe de Brito controls Syriam.
 ♦ 1635 Toungoo Dynasty capital is moved from Pegu to Ava in Upper Burma by King Thalun.
 ♦ 1752 Alaungpaya establishes Konbaung Dynasty (1752-1885), capital at Shwebo.
 ♦ 1755 Alaungpaya establishes Rangoon (Yangoun), "End of Strife."
 ♦ 1757 Alaungpaya captures Pegu, extinguishes Mon independence.
 ♦ 1767 March: King Hsinbyushin captures and pillages Siamese capital of Ayuthaya.
 ♦ 1770 Kaungton peace treaty between Burma and China after war (1766-1769).
 ♦ 1784-1785 King Bodawpaya conquers Arakan, brings Maha Muni Buddha image back to Upper Burma.
 British Colonial Period (1825-1941)
 ♦ 1824-1826 First Anglo-Burmese War; ends with Treaty of Yandabo.
 ♦ 1826 February 24: British annex Arakan and Tenasserim.
 ♦ 1852 April-December: Second Anglo-Burmese War; ends with annexation of Lower Burma (Pegu), including Rangoon, which becomes British colonial capital.
 ♦ 1871-1872 King Mindon (r. 1853-1878) holds Fifth Great Buddhist Council at Mandalay.
 ♦ 1881 Karen National Association (KNA) founded.
 ♦ 1885 November 14-28: Third Anglo-Burmese War.
 ♦ 1886 January 1: British proclaim annexation of all of Burma, as province of British India.
 ♦ 1885-ca. 1890 British Pacification of Burma.
 ♦ 1906 Young Men's Buddhist Association established in Rangoon.
 ♦ 1920 March: General Council of Burmese Associations (GCBA) established.
 ♦ December: First student strike in connection with Rangoon University Act.
 ♦ 1923 January: "Dyarchy" reforms implemented by British.
 ♦ 1930 December 22: Saya San Rebellion begins in Tharrawaddy District.
 ♦ 1931 August: Saya San captured by British, executed in November.
 ♦ 1936 February 25: Student strike at Rangoon University protests expulsion of Ko Nu, Ko Aung San.
 ♦ 1937 April 1: Government of Burma Act implemented; Burma separated from India.
 ♦ 1938-early 1939 Oilfield workers' strike; massive demonstrations in Rangoon; death of Bo Aung Gyaw, student activist mortally wounded in protest on December 20, 1938.
 ♦ 1940 August: Aung San leaves Burma for China to seek foreign assistance for independence struggle. November: Aung San arrives in Japan.
 ♦ 1941 April-October: Thirty Comrades receive military training from Japanese on Hainan Island. December 8: Pacific War begins.
 ♦ December 28: Burma Independence Army (BIA) established in Bangkok.
 JAPANESE OCCUPATION (1942-1945) AND STEPS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE (1947)
 ♦ 1943 August 1: Japanese proclaim Burma an "independent" nation within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; Dr. Ba Maw serves as Nain-ngandaw Adipadi or head of state.
 ♦ 1944 March-June: Imphal Offensive by Japanese into northeastern India. August: Anti-Fascist Organization founded, led by Aung San, communists.
 ♦ 1945 March 27: Aung San leads rising of Burma National Army against Japanese; anniversary known as Resistance Day/Armed Forces Day. May: Rangoon, evacuated by Japanese, recaptured by Allies.
 ♦ 1947 January 27: Aung San-Attlee Agreement signed. February 12: Panglong Agreement concluded by Aung San and Frontier Area Leaders (anniversary is Union Day). July 19: Aung San and members of his Interim Government cabinet assassinated. October 17: Nu-Attlee Agreement signed.
 PARLIAMENTARY PERIOD (1948-1962)
 ♦ 1948 January 4: Burma becomes independent from British rule; U Nu is prime minister. March 28: Communist Party of Burma, mainstream faction under Than Tun, begins armed struggle.
 ♦ 1949 January: Karen National Union rebels against U Nu government; Burma afflicted by civil war, insurgency, with large areas under control of communists, Karens, and others.
 ♦ 1950 January-March: Kuomintang troops enter Shan State to establish anticommunist base.
 ♦ 1951 June: Burma's first general election begins; polling not complete until following year; Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) and allies win 200 out of 239 seats.
 ♦ 1952 September 1: Shan States placed under martial law.
 ♦ 1956 April 27: Second general election; AFPFL wins 173 seats, National Unity Front, 48 seats.
 ♦ 1958 June: AFPFL irrevocably split into "Stable" and "Clean" factions.
 ♦ October 28: U Nu hands power to Caretaker Government headed by General Ne Win.
 ♦ 1960 January 28: Treaty and border agreement between Burma and China signed. February: Third general election; U Nu's "Clean" AFPFL faction wins solid victory. April 4: U Nu forms new government, ending Caretaker Government period.
 ♦ 1961 January 24: Shan leaders in Taunggyi pass resolution calling for enhanced federalism. August 26: Buddhism adopted as state religion of Burma; measure alienates Christians, other minorities.
 ♦ 1962 February 25: Federal Seminar in Rangoon begins.
 BURMA SOCIALIST PROGRAMME PARTY PERIOD (1962-1988)
 ♦ 1962 March 2: Ne Win leads coup d'état; 1947 constitution suspended, parliament dissolved (March 3). March 9: Revolutionary Council vests Ne Win with full governmental powers. April 3: "Burmese Way to Socialism" ideology published. July 4: Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) established. July 7: Troops fire on demonstrators at Rangoon University. July 8: Rangoon University Student Union building demolished by military; universities closed.
 ♦ 1962-late 1960s Nationalization of foreign and domestic companies; private media, private schools, etc., closed or placed under state control.
 ♦ 1963 February 8: Pragmatist Brigadier Aung Gyi dismissed from Revolutionary Council.
 ♦ 1964 March 28: Law to Protect National Solidarity makes BSPP sole political party. May 17: First demonetization.
 ♦ 1967 June: Anti-Chinese riots in Rangoon grow out of Mao badge incidents; crisis in Sino-Burmese relations.
 ♦ 1968 January 1: Communist Party of Burma base established on China border in Shan State; commanded by Naw Seng, it has full Chinese backing.
 ♦ 1969 August 29: Former Prime Minister U Nu establishes Parliamentary Democracy Party in exile.
 ♦ 1971 June28-July 11 First BSPP Congress held; Twenty-Year Plan unveiled.
 ♦ 1974 January 3: Constitution establishing the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma promulgated, following popular referendum.
 ♦ May-June: Labor strikes due to shortages of food and other necessities.
 ♦ December 5-11: U Thant incident; troops seize Rangoon University campus, many students killed, arrested.
 ♦ 1976 July: Discovery of plot by young military officers to overthrow Ne Win socialist regime.
 ♦ mid-1978 Rohingya refugees, numbering 200,000-300,000, flee to Bangladesh to escape persecution in Arakan State.
 ♦ 1980 May 24-27: Congregation of the Sangha convened, recognizes state supervision of Buddhist monks; State Council declares general amnesty.
 ♦ October 1982 Pyithu Hluttaw passes discriminatory new citizenship law.
 ♦ 1985 November 3: Second demonetization, of K100 notes.
 ♦ 1987 August 10: In a radio speech, Ne Win admits that serious mistakes were made during his years in power. September 5: Third demonetization; unlike previous two, without compensation, causing great hardship for Burmese of all classes. December 11: United Nations approves "Least Developed Country" status for Burma.
 POPULAR MOVEMENT OF 1988
 ♦ 1988 March 12-18: Student demonstrations, harshly suppressed by Riot Police, following March 12 teashop incident, including March 16 White Bridge Incident, in which almost 300 students are reportedly killed by Riot Police. June: New student demonstrations in Rangoon (Myeinigone incident, June 21); unrest spreads to Pegu, Prome, and Moulmein. June 8: Aung Gyi's open letter to Ne Win on political, economic crisis. July 23-25: Extraordinary Congress of BSPP; Ne Win proposes multiparty system, resigns as BSPP chairman. July 26-27: Sein Lwin designated new BSPP chairman and president of Burma. August 8: The "Four Eights" movement to topple Sein Lwin begins; huge demonstrations; hundreds shot by army August 8-11 in Rangoon, Sagaing, and other cities. August 12: Sein Lwin resigns. August 19: Dr. Maung Maung appointed BSPP chairman and Burma's president.
 ♦ August 26: Aung San Suu Kyi makes speech at Shwe Dagon Pagoda, describes "second struggle for national independence." September 17: Trade Ministry Incident.
 STATE LAW AND ORDER RESTORATION COUNCIL (1988-1997)
 ♦ 1988 September 18: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) seizes power; Army methodically snuffs out opposition in late September, early October. September 24: National League for Democracy (NLD) founded by Aung San Suu Kyi, Tin U, and Aung Gyi.
 ♦ 1989 March-April: Mutiny within ethnic ranks of Communist Party of Burma results in retirement of top leaders and the party's breakup..
 ♦ July 20: SLORC places Aung San Suu Kyi and Tin U under house arrest (Tin U later sentenced to jail).
 ♦ 1989-1997 Cease-fires concluded by SLORC and 22 major and minor ethnic armed groups, the largest of which is the United Wa State Army.
 ♦ 1990 May 27: General Election; NLD wins 392 out of 485 Pyithu Hluttaw seats contested. July 27: SLORC issues "Announcement No. 1/90" asserting its supreme power and barring NLD from forming a government. Summer: "Overturning the Offering Bowl" protest by Buddhist monks against SLORC, spreads from Mandalay to other cities; suppressed by autumn. December 18: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma proclaimed at Manerplaw.
 ♦ 1991 October 14: Announcement that Aung San Suu Kyi has been awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
 ♦ 1992 April: Number of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh fleeing persecution in Burma reaches 250,000. April 23: Senior General Saw Maung retires as SLORC chairman; succeeded by Than Shwe.
 ♦ 1993 January 9: National Convention convened for first time in Rangoon to draft outline for new constitution.
 ♦ 1994 Buddha Tooth Relic from China tours Burma for 45 days. February 24: Kachin Independence Army/Organization signs cease-fire with SLORC.
 ♦ 1995 January 26: Karen National Union forces abandon Manerplaw, which falls to Burmese army on January 27. July 10: Aung San Suu Kyi released from house arrest, recommences political activities, including holding public forums in front of her house on University Avenue, Rangoon. November 28: Boycott of National Convention announced by NLD.
 ♦ 1996 January 6: Khun Sa formally surrenders to the SLORC; Mong Tai Army disbanded; former warlord retires to Rangoon, engages in business; Burma is the world's largest producer of opiates. Massive relocation of people in central Shan State by army begins, affecting 300,000 by 1998. November 9: Attack on motorcade of Aung San Suu Kyi in Rangoon by pro-regime mob. December: Students demonstrate in Rangoon; 600 students and others arrested; Daw Suu Kyi's house blockaded.
 ♦ 1997 July 23: Burma formally admitted to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
 STATE PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL (1997- )
 ♦ 1997 November 15: Reorganization of SLORC as State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); corrupt generals purged, but Than Shwe, Maung Aye, and Khin Nyunt remain top leaders.
 ♦ 1998 September 16: NLD establishes Committee Representing the People's Parliament (CRPP); confrontation between NLD and SPDC intensifies.
 ♦ 1999 April: SPDC-sponsored replacement of hti on summit of Shwedagon Pagoda, Rangoon.
 ♦ 2000 September: Aung San Suu Kyi placed under house arrest after attempting to leave Rangoon by train for Mandalay.
 ♦ October 2000-May 2002 Secret talks between Aung San Suu Kyi and SPDC, brokered by Malaysia's Razali Ismail, raise hopes of reconciliation.
 ♦ 2002 March: Discovery of "coup plot" involving grandsons and soninlaw of Ne Win; Ne Win family including daughter Sanda Win, placed under arrest. May 6: Daw Suu Kyi released from house arrest; between then and May 2003 makes eight trips upcountry to meet with NLD local branches. December 5: Death of Ne Win, little or no coverage in official press; no state funeral.
 ♦ 2003 May 30: Pro-regime mob attacks Aung San Suu Kyi and her NLD supporters during upcountry trip, in Sagaing Division ("Black Friday" incident); many believed killed; she is placed under house arrest for third time after being imprisoned; the dialogue process is at an end.
 ♦ 2004 May 17: National Convention reconvenes. October 18: Khin Nyunt, prime minister (since 2003) and head of Military Intelligence, is arrested, accused of corruption and trying to split the armed forces; his MI subordinates also arrested or retired; "hard liner" General Soe Win becomes new prime minister.
 ♦ 2005 Growing movement within ASEAN to persuade Burma to relinquish chairmanship of ASEAN when its turn comes in 2006. February 17: National Convention reconvened, but adjourned on March 31.
 ♦ March 27: Senior General Than Shwe calls for "fully institutionalized discipline" at 60th anniversary celebration of Armed Forces Day. May 7: Three bomb blasts at crowded shopping centers in Rangoon kill and injure large number of bystanders (official figure of 11 fatalities and 160 wounded considered underestimations); SPDC accuses foreignbased opposition groups, but identity of the perpetrators remains unclear as of summer 2005. July 22: Khin Nyunt sentenced to 44 years in jail, suspended. July 26: Burma announces it will forgo 2006 chairmanship of ASEAN. November 6: Relocation of civil servants from Rangoon to new capital near Pyinmana, southern Mandalay Division, commences.

Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). . 2014.

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